Definitions of Eye Terms


       Aberration: the failure of refracted light to focus to a common point.

       Abrasion:an erosion of the surface cell layers.

       Accommodation: the "automatic" adjustment the eye makes in order to focus on objects at different distances.

       After-image: an image which remains after the light stimulation to the retina has stopped.

       Amaurosis: blindness as a result of any disease.

       Amblyopia: poor sight in a healthy eye whcih does not fully improve with corrective lenses.

       Ametropia: any sight problem caused by an improperly focused image on the retina.

       Aniridia: lack of the iris at birth.


       Bifocal: a corrective lens which has two focusing distances, near and far.

       Binocular vision: the ability of the brain to fuse images from both eye together into a single image.

       Biomicroscope: an instrument for examining the front and interior of the eye under magnification.

       Blepharitis: an inflammation of the eyelids.

       Blepharospasm: a twitch of the eyelids, usually due to eye strain.


       Cataract: cloudiness of the crystalline lens in the eye.

       Chalazion: large build up on top of a gland.

       Cone: receptor used for color vision.

       Conjunctiva: guards as a barrier between the eye and air.

       Contact lens: additional lens for the eye to aid in vision.


       Dacryocystitis: build up in the nasolacrimal sac.

       Depth perception: ability to see in 3 dimensions.

       Dyslexia: comprehension impairment involving they eye and brain.


       Ectropion: results when the eyelids turn out.

       Entopion: eyelids turn in affecting conjunctiva.

       Esophoria: condition in which eyes focus to the inside.

       Extrinsic muscles: muscles responsible for controlling all eye movements.


        Flashes: quick abnormal flashes of light seen by the eye.

        Floaters: dark spots seen hovering around.

        Fovea: within the macula, the innermost detailed vision.

        Fusion: when the brain combines two images of each of the eyes into one.


        Glare: over abundance of light on a particular surface.

        Glaucoma: large pressure put on the eye resulting in vision loss.


        Hordeolum: resembling a style; an infection on the eyelid region.

        Hyperphoria: problem with eye looking up unconsciously.

        Hypertropia: problem with eye constantly looking down.

        Hypopion: large sac of pus built up on eye.


        Infrared: Invisible to the human eye, form of radiation.

        Iris: gives eye the color it has.

        Iritis: the unusual enlargening of the iris.


        Keratitis: corneal swelling.

        Keratoconus: gradual enlargement of corneal shape.

        Keratometer: used to measure shape of cornea.


        Laser:Light Amplicfication by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

        Lens: used to transmit light

        Lens implant: used after cataract surgery to restore vision

        Luxation: when lens is disrupted from usual position


        Macula: used for detailed vision; driving, reading, etc.

        Macular degeneration: gradual deterioration of macular region

        Miosis: pupil contracts

        Monocular: person with one eye

        Multifocal: special contact lens with multiple focusing options

        Myopia: nearsightedness


        Night blindess: common condition which one can't see at night

        Nystagmus: uncontrolable movement of the eye


        Oculist: physician specializing in eye disorders

        Opacity: opaqueness in eyes; can result in cataracts

        Optic nerve: eye's connection to the brain

        Orbit: socket which encompasses the eye


        Papillitis: enlargemnet of one's optic disc

        Paresis: semi-paralyzed

        Peripheral vision: side sight; overall picture

        Pinguecula: small bump or irritation located on conjunctiva

        Pink eye: condition which conjunctiva becomes inflamed


        Refraction: bending of light through different objects

        Retina: layer inside the eye responsible for recepting light

        Rods: opposite of cones, catch shapes, objects, light intensity


        Sclera: white covering of one's eye

        Squint: to look with eyes only partially open

        Sty: infection of the eyelid

        Subluxation: lens of eye is not in correct position


        Tachistoscope:used to lenghten span of sight

        Tear film: layer covering cornea

        Trachoma: viral infection causing scarring on the corneal tissue

        Trifocal: lens with three perspectives of vision

        Tropia: having a crossed eye


         Uveitis: abnormal uvea enlargement

         Ultraviolet: excessive radiation causing skin cancer and other eye problems


         Visual acuity: the best site possible; otherwise know as 20/20

         Visual illusion: misinterpretation by the brain of an image

         Vitreous humor: jelly substance which hold the retina firmly in place

         Visual therapy: training aimed at improving the eyes


         Wall eyed: when an eye strays out


         Zonule of Zinn: bond that holds the lens to the eye.


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